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Lauri Cheng

EDCI 5542

Prof. James Carter

March 15th

Lesson Plan for Rhyming Poems

 

 

• Statement of Objectives

1.      Language Objectives- The students will practice pronunciation through phonemes of rhyming words. They will demonstrate proper grammar usage through creative writing and try to expand their vocabulary through rhyming poetry.

2.      Content Objectives- The students will learn the basic definitions of poetry and rhyme and then be able to write their own rhyming poems. They will also understand the timing and rhythm of poem recitation to help with the pace of everyday speech.  

 

• Description of Students (level, background)

The students are intermediate level ESL learners in eighth grade, ages 13-14 years old. They attend an American middle school with a culturally diverse class (German, Japanese, Saudi Arabian, Mexican, etc.). Students already have some knowledge of basic grammar and vocabulary.

 

• Course Materials

PowerPoint, ball for rhyming game, Shel Silverstein worksheets, writing utensils

 

• Warm-Up Activity (1-2 min.)

1.      The teacher will ask the students what they think a poem is. Students will give their own definitions and examples. The teacher will then display a very brief definition of a poem on a PowerPoint presentation. Then an example of a poem will be read aloud by the teacher so the students can hear an example of the rhythm and pace at which poetry should be read.

2.      The teacher will then ask the students what kind of poem the example is. Students may come up with ideas on what patterns they notice and try to define what type of poetry is being read. The next display on the PowerPoint will be “Rhyming Poems” where the teacher will then explain what a rhyme is.

 

• Guided Practice (3-4 min.)

After brief explanation, the teacher will use the PowerPoint presentation to display pairs of words that may or may not have a rhyming pattern. The teacher will elicit students on whether or not each pair rhymes.

 

• Group Activity (6-7 min.)

Rhyme Time! The teacher will divide the class into two teams. Team One and Team Two will line up side by side and face each other. Each team will receive five points at the beginning of the game. The teacher will come up with a basic vocabulary word and then throw the ball to a student on Team One. The student that catches the ball will say aloud another vocabulary word that rhymes with the original word spoken by the teacher. If the student gets stuck then he or she may ask the team for help. After the word is said, the student will throw the ball to a student on Team Two and that student must come up with another rhyming word. Rhyming words may not be repeated. The students will continue throwing the ball back and forth to each other until someone cannot think of another word or repeats a word that has already been said. The team that cannot think of a word will have one point deducted. The teacher will then come up with another word and repeat. The team that gets to zero points first will lose and the other team will be victorious!

 

• Independent Practice (6-7 min.)

The teacher will pass out Shel Silverstein worksheets. The worksheet will have an example of a poem and illustration for the students to reference. These worksheets will challenge students to independently come up with rhyming words and write them down. On the back of the worksheet, students will use the rhyming words on the front of the worksheet or come up with their own rhyming words to write their own poems. There will be a place for illustration to accompany their poem. The teacher will monitor students to make sure they are using correct spelling and grammar. All poems should be written in complete sentences and with rhyming words.

 

• Pair Work (2-3 min.)

After the poems are completed, the teacher will pair off the students and ask each student to read aloud their poem to their partner. The teacher will monitor students in pronunciation as well as the rhythm and pace in which they read aloud.

 

• Closure (2 min.)

The teacher will ask if there is time if any students would like to present their poem to the rest of the class. Students can first volunteer and then be called on by the teacher if there are no longer volunteers. To end class the teacher will mention another type of poem to be taught at the next class.

 

• Assessment

Students should be using their knowledge of vocabulary words to apply rhyming patterns. This will be demonstrated in the group activity as well as the independent practice. Students will also be using proper pronunciation when saying aloud their rhyming words and when reading aloud their written poems. Correct spelling and grammar will be demonstrated through their written poems in independent practice.

 

• Modifications (for students with special needs)

For students who are having trouble coming up with their own words, the group activity will use collaboration and teamwork to give those students ideas and examples. The worksheet used during independent practice will have an example and groups of rhyming words included if the student gets stuck on writing his or her own poem on the back of the worksheet.

 

 

Literature Review: 

Multiple Intelligences in ESL Instruction

 

Dustin Cornwell

University of Missouri – Kansas City

EDCI 5542 Professor James Carter

May 3, 2016

            The Multiple Intelligences Model is a philosophy of learning styles proposed by Gardner in 1983.  His model provides an alternative to the standard Intelligence Quotient (IQ) test by positing the existence of eight distinct learning intelligences:  linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist (Richards & Rodgers, 2001, pp. 115-116).  While not specifically designed with L2 language instruction in mind, over the past few decades a large body of research literature has examined the application of Gardner’s model to the ESL classroom.  This review takes a look at research conducted with adult learners in a Multiple Intelligences context.

            Savas (2012) looked at a group of advanced English learners in Turkey who had studied English for at least 10 years and planned to become English language instructors after graduating from college (p. 851).  All had studied Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences theory at the university, and the students were asked to write about which intelligences they felt were important in foreign language learning.  The vast majority of participants believed that more than one intelligence was critical to successful foreign language learning; unsurprisingly, all participants cited linguistic intelligence, while interpersonal and visual-spatial were the next-most commonly cited intelligences impacting language acquisition (Savas, 2012, p. 852).  While providing interesting insight into the teaching of English as an L2, I found this research to be lacking since it relied on short (300 word) responses to one question.  Participants were not directly asked to compare the relative importance of different intelligences.  Some participants may have believed that other intelligences than the ones they wrote about had relevance, but did not write about them because they ran out of time or felt that they had to limit their responses to a certain length.  Also, these college students had not actually taught English yet; they had only studied how to teach it and drew their responses only from what they had learned in their courses, not from teaching English learners.

            Wu and Alrabah (2009) collaborated to conduct a study with two groups of university EFL students, more than 100 each from Taiwan and Kuwait (p. 398).  The students completed a detailed survey instrument examining their learning styles, and interestingly both the Kuwaiti and Taiwanese students showed strengths in visual (spatial) and interpersonal. However, there were significant differences among the remaining six intelligences; for example, while musical was third-most dominant for Taiwanese students, it was the  lowest for Kuwaiti students (Wu & Alrabah, 2009, p. 400).  Unlike Savas’ study cited above, this study did not attempt to determine which intelligence was most “important”; rather, it attempted to examine whether there are cultural differences that instructors may need to consider when working with diverse classrooms.  The authors concluded that “Students can identify, analyze and use their strengths to succeed in their academic studies, to develop their social relationships, and to learn language” (Wu & Alrabah, 2009, p. 401).  They further noted that teachers should not only “accommodate their students’ learning styles and multiple intelligences,” but also help students by raising their “awareness of the intelligences and learning styles that they do not use and by developing them” (Wu & Alrabah, 2009, pp. 401-402).  While the findings of this research do not identify which intelligences (if any) are strongly linked to language acquisition success, I felt that the authors made a strong case for using Multiple Intelligences to identify dominant learning styles in a group of students and tailoring teaching methods to make use of them.

            Kim (2009) looked beyond the research about Multiple Intelligences in EFL classroom settings and examined the relevance of Multiple Intelligences to Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) (p. 1).  In her study, Kim tested a group of 39 college students majoring in English in Korea to provide insight into two aspects of CALL learning related to Multiple Intelligences:  whether CALL instruction increases students’ Multiple Intelligences inventory scores, and which type of intelligence correlates most highly with listening ability (Kim, 2009, p. 7).  Students were given the TOEIC test at the start of the 16-week course along with a Korean Multiple Intelligences questionnaire, and then they took the test and questionnaire again at the end of the course.  The results indicated that CALL instruction did increase students’ overall Multiple Intelligences scores, and their scores increased in each of the Multiple Intelligences categories, although the amount of the change varied (Kim, 2009, p. 10).  However, there was no correlation between listening scores and the Multiple Intelligence types.  The author hypothesizes that this result could be due to the types being “too generalized to show noticeable correlations to specific language skills such as listening” (Kim, 2009, p. 12).  This is plausible, and Kim (2009) recommends further research since the sample size in this experiment was small and the number of instructional hours was low (p. 13).  I think that future experiments should be more carefully designed to distinguish between improvements in English due to any kind of instruction versus instruction focused on Multiple Intelligences categories.  Certainly, one would expect that 16 weeks of English instruction would improve students’ listening scores, even if the teaching was not delivered in the students’ preferred mode of learning; future research needs to clarify the role of Multiple Intelligences.

            Razmjoo (2008) considered the relationship between Multiple Intelligences and language proficiency in his study of 278 Iranians taking Ph.D. entrance exams at a university (p. 166).  Participants completed a 90-question Multiple Intelligences questionnaire as well as an English proficiency test consisting of 100 questions testing reading comprehension, vocabulary, and sentence structure (Razmjoo, 2008, p. 167).  Statistical analysis revealed no correlations between language proficiency and Multiple Intelligences.  Furthermore, no one type of intelligence or combination of types of intelligences could predict language proficiency (Razmjoo, 2008, p. 170).  Compared to most of the other research literature I looked at for this review, I felt that this study was much more thorough and comprehensive; it included a large sample size and a significant amount of data collected from instruments designed specifically to measure language proficiency and Multiple Intelligences.  The result of this experiment was similar to Kim’s (2009) in that it did not demonstrate any significant correlation between specific intelligence types and language proficiency. 

            Another research study conducted in Iran looked for correlations between language learning and Multiple Intelligences scores.  Akbari and Hosseini (2008) looked at 90 university students who were English majors and gave them three tests:  IELTS to test English proficiency; SILL (Strategy Inventory for Language Learners) to test their use of language learning strategies, and MIDAS (Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales) to evaluate their strengths across multiple learning styles (pp. 147-148).  The research found a significant correlation between the use of language learning strategies and Multiple Intelligence scores, which was hypothesized by the authors:  “It can be postulated here that both intelligence and strategy use belong to a general problem solving ability, hence their positive correlation” (Akbari & Hosseini, 2008, pp. 150-151).  However, the correlation between language proficiency (not language learning strategy use) and Multiple Intelligences was weak.  The only correlation that was significant was with linguistic intelligence, which is unsurprising, as “linguistic seems to be the most appropriate for acting as the predictor of language proficiency” (Akbari & Hosseini, 2008, p. 154). 

            Almost identical results were obtained by Mahdavy (2007) in his research project involving 151 Iranian college students majoring in English (p. 8).  In his study, students took the TOEFL to determine English language proficiency and the MIDAS questionnaire to measure their Multiple Intelligence scores (Mahdavy, 2007, p. 8).  Mahdavy (2007) concludes, “After doing stepwise regression analysis, it was found that from among 8 intelligences only linguistic intelligence is included as a predictor of listening comprehension scores and other intelligences are excluded” (p. 9). 

            Having reviewed these research articles, I was at first somewhat surprised that there were so few findings supportive of a correlation between Multiple Intelligences and English language proficiency.  There are several possible reasons for this.  First, Multiple Intelligences is not specifically focused on language acquisition; it is a general theory of learning designed to measure intelligence on a wide spectrum of attributes.  In that light, perhaps it should not be so surprising to see little consistent correlation.  Also, linguistics researchers have long noted that almost all humans are able to acquire language, so having high intelligence (on any dimension) may not be a prerequisite to effective language acquisition.  Furthermore, certain Multiple Intelligence dimensions (naturalist and spatial, for instance) do not seem to have a strong obvious connection to language acquisition.  The one dimension that does seem to have consistent support in the literature—linguistic—is an expected and reasonable result.

            As I thought more about the research, it occurred to me that as instructors, perhaps we should be less concerned with whether or not certain types of intelligence are correlated with language acquisition success than we are with how we can work with students exhibiting each type of intelligence.  How is an L2 language learner with strong logical/mathematical skills most likely to approach learning English versus an L2 language learner with low logical/mathematical skills but strong bodily/kinesthetic affinity?   If instructors can modify their lesson plans to accommodate various learning styles and strengths, they are more likely to help L2 learners achieve linguistic competence.  The challenge for instructors is to do this in practice.  If a teacher is providing one-on-one tutoring, he can easily modify lessons to suit the learner.  When he has a classroom of 25 students exhibiting several different varieties of Multiple Intelligence strengths, there is a much greater challenge.  If it’s not possible to provide several options for each lesson (and realistically, it’s probably not possible on a regular basis), then a reasonable alternative is to vary the content of lesson plans to meet the needs of as many students as possible.  Including physical activities (bodily/kinesthetic), group projects (interpersonal), individual assignments (intrapersonal), and songs or instruments (musical) across a variety of lessons can help make language more accessible to most students.  Multiple Intelligences is a long way from some of the rote, teacher-centric theories of the early to mid-20th century, and while it is not an all-encompassing theory of L2 language acquisition, it provides a framework for helping instructors successfully reach a wide range of learners.

 

References

Akbari, R., & Hosseini, K. (2008). Multiple intelligences and language learning strategies: Investigating possible relations. System, 36(2), 141-155.

Kim, I. S. (2009). The relevance of multiple intelligences to CALL instruction. The Reading Matrix, 9(1), 1-21.

Mahdavy, B. (2007). The role of multiple intelligences (MI) in listening proficiency.

Razmjoo, Seyyed Ayatollah (2008). On the relationship between multiple intelligences and language proficiency. The Reading Matrix, 8(2), 155-174.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and methods in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.

Savas, P. (2012). Pre-service English as a foreign language teachers' perceptions of the relationship between multiple intelligences and foreign language learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 22(6), 850-855.

Wu, S. H., & Alrabah, S. (2009). A crosscultural study of Taiwanese and Kuwaiti EFL students’ learning styles and multiple intelligences. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 46(4), 393-403.

 

 

Dustin Cornwell
EDCI 5542 – Carter
Teaching Lesson Plan:  Advanced
Topic:  Science Fiction Literature
April 26, 2016

 

Objective:  Students will gain an understanding of the features of science fiction literature.  They will learn and use vocabulary commonly encountered in science fiction by writing a story in teams and sharing the story orally with their classmates.

 

Description of Students:  The class consists of 17 advanced-level ESL students in 9th and 10th grade.

 

TESOL Standard:  Goal 2, Standard 1.  To use English to achieve academically in all content areas:  Students will use English to interact in the classroom.  Descriptors:  following oral and written directions, implicit and explicit; participating in full-class, group, and pair discussions; elaborating and extending other people’s ideas and words.  Sample Progress Indicators:  ask a teacher or peer to confirm one’s understanding of directions to complete an assignment; negotiate cooperative roles and task assignments; take turns when speaking in a group; join in a group response at an appropriate time.

 

ESL/ESOL Standards by Skill (Advanced Level):  Speaking Skills:  participate in discussions on topics beyond immediate survival needs.  Writing Skills:  write complex sentences in paragraphs.

 

Warm-up Activity:  The instructor shows a short video explaining what science fiction is and leads a discussion to clarify and expand upon the content of the video.  (3 minutes)

 

Guided Practice:  The instructor asks the class to name some science fiction-related vocabulary words they learned from the video as well as some other words they know related to the topic.  The instructor provides some additional vocabulary after the students finish brainstorming and provides the students with a short text.  Students take turns reading sentences from the short text out loud, and the instructor asks questions to check for comprehension. (6 minutes)

 

Independent Practice:  Students will be divided into 4 groups.  Each group will write a continuation of the story presented in the text, using the vocabulary that has been introduced.  Groups should write at least 8 sentences and provide a title for their story.  (10 minutes)

Then, the class comes back together, and each group provides the title of their story to the instructor.  The instructor has the class vote on which story they would like to hear (based on the title), and one volunteer from that group comes to the front of the room and reads the story.  (Note:  Ideally, one person from each group in the class would read each team’s story, but time is limited for this exercise.) (4 minutes)

Closure:  The instructor summarizes what they have learned about science fiction and lets the students know that several science-fiction books have been added to the classroom bookcase so that they can use their free-reading time in future classes to further explore science fiction. (2 minutes)

Assessment:  The instructors will observe students as they work in teams to assess their understanding of the subject and assist groups that seem to be struggling with vocabulary or with coming up with ideas for the stories they are writing.

Modifications:  Students with physical limitations may need assistance with writing responses.  Team members and/or the instructors can assist students with special needs.

 

 

Jessica Cromley
Prof. James Carter

EDCI 5542
April 2, 2016

Learning Checklist #3

The prompts from this checklist can be explored in the Richards/Rodgers text and the Peregoy/Boyle text and from our class discussions.

Briefly explain how understanding of Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences can help you in ESL instruction.

 

By utilizing Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences in the ESL classroom, a teacher can would be able to encourage learning that goes beyond traditional books and learning mediums. This can open up many opportunities for teachers to cater to the many specific learning styles and needs of individual students. Knowing which students are linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist would be extremely helpful in understanding how they would best learn a second language.

 

What ideas of Suggestopedia do you think you can apply?

 

I don’t believe that all aspects of this method would be beneficial to language learners. However, there are some features that I would implement in my classroom such as the use of music as therapy; to establish relationships, to increase self-esteem through musical performance, and energizing and bringing order through rhythm. I also believe that learning can be maximized by focusing on a bright, warm, and welcoming environment through strategic placement of decorations and furniture in the room. I might also consider varying the tone and rhythm of presented material to avoid boredom through monotony of repetition and to dramatize, emotionalize, and give meaning to linguistic material.

 

Explain whether you believe taking a Whole Language approach would work for you in your ESL classroom.

 

I believe that the Whole Language approach would be very beneficial to an ESL classroom. However, I also believe that depending on the age and level of ESL learners, it would be more successful with younger learners than adults. This method emphasizes learning to read and write naturally with a focus on real communication as well as reading and writing for pleasure. It also focuses on the importance of meaning and meaning making and is similar in nature to the way that a child acquires their first language. I think that this way of teaching a second language would be more effective for children because they are more able to grasp language as a whole rather than breaking it down into vocabulary and parts of grammar and learning each part individually.

 

Give a very brief summary of the theory of Community Language Teaching (CLT).

 

This method of teaching uses the Counseling-Learning Theory to teach languages. In order to do this, the roles of the teacher and student must be redefined as counselor and client. The techniques involved in this method are referred to as humanistic techniques, and are known to engage the whole person in the learning process, including their emotions and feelings as well as linguistic knowledge and behavior. One component of this approach is to first teach the students a lesson in their native language and then again in the second language so they are able to compare the messages and translate them into their L2. The students will then be expected to pass along the message again to a classmate, using the L2 as a means to transfer the information. In this way, the learner becomes both the subject and the object of his own message.

 

Explain the benefits of literature response groups.

 

This method allows readers to work in collaborative groups to listen to the viewpoints of their peers but at the same time they are expected to respond to literature individually and share their responses with others. This helps them work together to figure out the meaning of the stories they read. These groups typically consist of 3-6 students who have read a common piece of literature and are ready to discuss it together. This type of group encourages active participation as well as flexibility of interpretations and toleration of differing views. Also, it prepares the students for more independent interpretations of the literature that they read.

 

How does the teacher avoid putting students in a situation where their reading at the “frustration” level?

 

The teacher should help the student to find reading material that has an appropriate level of difficulty in order for them to benefit. The books should be easy enough for them to read on their own, yet difficult enough for them to be challenged and use their “reading muscles.” There are several tests to determine the appropriate reading level for students such as informal reading inventories, the five-finger exercise, and the use of leveled books.

 

Explain similarities and differences between story mapping and cognitive mapping.

 

Story mapping is an example of a scaffold that helps students to use the basic structure of a story to better understand and compose stories. The basic skeletal structure of this method consists of a character wanting something, being opposed and facing challenges in achieving this and then a resolution of the conflict. Using the story map model, a learner would fill in the chart using the words, someone, wants, but, and so. By sharing these maps, learners deepen their understanding and awareness of key elements while helping them to write their own stories. Cognitive mapping is a similar method that summarized text through the use of graphic drawings in order for students to comprehend and remember what they have read. It is also similar to story mapping in that it helps students brainstorm for their own compositions. The difference is that story maps are more for simple stories with minimal characters and cognitive mapping is more for complex stories with multiple characters.

 

How could you use DR-TA?

 

Directed reading-thinking activity is a method where the students read silently after having an oral discussion as a class and predictions were made. This is a teacher-led activity by breaking the text into portions and assisting the students with predictions and confirmations to find out if those predictions are correct. The benefits of this method are providing students with support at the beginning of the story to engage them and providing a model of active questioning throughout the text.

 

Explain miscue analysis.

 

This reading assessment tool is used to determine and focus on the readers’ deviations or miscues made while reading out loud. This tool acts as a valuable source of information about how the reader is processing print. Through this analysis, a teacher is able to assess the students’ strengths and weaknesses, thereby be able to accommodate each individual’s needs as well as altering the overall instruction to the class. The process involves choosing a particular student along with a specific reading that is a bit challenging for them and then recording the student reading the piece out loud. The teacher would then mark all miscues in order to analyze which impede comprehension and which do not.

 

What kinds of classroom contexts and teaching strategies can assist students to use reading and writing in English as a learning tool?

 

There are many different teaching strategies to use in the classroom to help students with learning English through reading and writing. Some of them include adapting stories, the use of big books, cognitive mapping, developing scripts, illustrating poems, miscue analysis, patterned books, readers’ theater, response groups, and story mapping.

 

Describe how you would use some of the pre-reading strategies.

 

There are many strategies that I would employ in the classroom to motivate students and build their interest and background knowledge on the topic that they are about to read. I would first make the purpose clear of why the students are to read the particular text and clearly state the expectations of what they should be learning. Next, I would provide background knowledge of the topic through field trips or videos or pictures. If the topic was such that simulation games could be provided to enhance the students’ comprehension, I would also provide them in the pre-reading process. Also, developing vocabulary before the reading assignment would help ensure their success of fully engaging in the reading materials.

Practical application:  If you were preparing a US history lesson for ELLs, how would you help develop background knowledge, vocabulary and approaches to reading a history text?  How would you teach them to become expert questioners of the texts they read and develop their confidence?

 

If I was preparing a history lesson for ELL’s, I would first stress the importance of learning about history and specifically why we are learning about the particular topic. I would then take the students to a museum directly related to the topic. Upon returning to the classroom, I would have a game prepared that would get students thinking about the artifacts seen in the museum and allow them a hands-on, interactive experience. I would then work with the classroom to create a map of related key words with supporting categories to be placed around it for the students to brainstorm all ideas associated with the history lesson. I would also add some difficult vocabulary words so we could explore definitions prior to reading the text.

 

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